Thursday, April 5, 2012

Two education related statistics (Pakistan, India and China)

On adult literacy levels in Pakistan over the years, from the article by Anne Goujon and Asif Wazir of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis:
Year -- No education -- Primary Incomplete -- Primary Complete -- Lower Secondary -- Upper Secondary -- Higher Education Qualified (first Male, then Female -- all numbers in percentages)

1972 M 68 03 10 14 03 02
1972 F 92 01 03 03 01 01

1981 M 66 -- 12 16 03 03
1981 F 88 -- 05 05 01 01

1998 M 48 06 12 24 05 06
1998 F 74 04 07 10 03 03

2005 M 34 05 15 29 08 09
2005 F 64 03 11 13 04 05

Observations:
1) From the above data, the percentage of literates in Pakistan is growing (in both males and females) over the years -- which should not be very surprising. Every country makes progress on literacy levels if you give them enough time.
2) But this is not how to read the above statistics. To me, the differential in literacy between males and females is a clear indicator of the level of violence in that society (see related posts: Linky 1 and Linky 2). In Pakistan, the illiteracy differential between females and males in Pakistan is 24% in 1972, 22% in 1981, 26% in 1998 and 30% in 2005.
3) From their more detailed paper (Linky), the literacy differential between males and females is 7% in 1951, 19% in 1961, 8% in 1972, 19% in 1981, 23% in 1998, 24% in 2004 and 24% in 2009. On both extremes (illiteracy differential as well as literacy differential), Pakistan is in pakistan (aka deep do-do) and the level of violence is consequently very much explainable.
4) Breaking these figures into provincial statistics from p. 13 of Linky, we have the following differential literacy rates:

Year Punjab Sindh NWFP Baluchistan
1972 19% 19.9% 18.4% 10.5%
1981 20% 18.1% 19.3% 10.9%
1998 22.1% 19.72% 32.57% 21.5%
2004 21.3% 19.80% 38.15% 26.41%

5) Clearly, Punjab and Sindh have stabilized in terms of differential literacy rates and if my hypothesis is correct, then the violence levels in Punjab and Sindh should be pretty much consistent from 1970 and up. Either this trend was not recognized before or the hypothesis of literacy differentials correlating to violence is not completely capturing the picture or the data is being fudged somewhere.
6) On the other hand, NWFP and Baluchistan see a massive jump in the differential literacy rates in the post-Soviet/Taliban setting. While the revolution in Iran (1979) marks the turning point in terms of an upshot for worldwide terrorism trends, the violence level in the neighborhood is slow by a good 10 years. This is not explainable. While terrorism/revolutionary activities spills over very quickly into the neighborhood, why is there a lag in Pakistan? Was it that the CIA arming of mujahideen also come with caveats that prevented a quick Talibanization of the Pakistani mindset?

Salary for higher ed in India, following up from Linky. Some comments from Linky:
1) Two countries -- China and India -- have been the focus of many global education watchers in recent years as they have moved rapidly to expand capacity and expertise in their university systems. The study shows India holding its own in international faculty salary comparisons (factoring in cost of living), but not China. This reality has led Chinese universities, Altbach noted, to offer very high Western-style salaries, to a very small number of academics (typically Chinese expats recruited home). The numbers are such a small share of the total Chinese academic labor pool that they don't influence the Chinese totals, he said, but without these deviations from salary norms, China couldn't attract those researchers. India, in contrast, does not permit universities to deviate from salary norms for superstars.
2) Another area where the countries differ is in the difference between entry-level salaries (averages for assistant professors) and those at the top of their fields (full professors). Across all 28 countries studied, the average ratio of the senior salary average to the junior salary average was 2.06 to 1 (factoring in the PPP). The gaps between senior and junior pay levels were greatest in China (4.3 to 1) and smallest in Norway (1.3 to 1). Western European nations generally had low ratios.
3) Monthly Average Salaries of Public Higher Education Faculty, Using U.S. PPP Dollars

Country -- Entry Level Pay -- Average Pay -- Top Pay

Armenia $405 $538 $665
Russia 433 617 910
China 259 720 1,107
Ethiopia 864 1,207 1,580
Kazakhstan 1,037 1,553 2,304
Latvia 1,087 1,785 2,654
Mexico 1,336 1,941 2,730
Czech Republic 1,655 2,495 3,967
Turkey 2,173 2,597 3,898
Colombia 1,965 2,702 4,058
Brazil 1,858 3,179 4,550
Japan 2,897 3,473 4,604
France 1,973 3,484 4,775
Argentina 3,151 3,755 4,385
Malaysia 2,824 4,628 7,864
Nigeria 2,758 4,629 6,229
Israel 3,525 4,747 6,377
Norway 4,491 4,940 5,847
Germany 4,885 5,141 6,383
Netherlands 3,472 5,313 7,123
Australia 3,930 5,713 7,499
United Kingdom 4,077 5,943 8,369
Saudi Arabia 3,457 6,002 8,524
United States 4,950 6,054 7,358
India 3,954 6,070 7,433
South Africa 3,927 6,531 9,330
Italy 3,525 6,955 9,118
Canada 5,733 7,196 9,485

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